FAQs   =   FREQUENT  ASKED  /  A N S W E R E D   Q U E S T I O N S
******************************************************************
           &    H I N T S   TO   R E S T O R A T I O N S   ...

           "THINK!" - OUT-OF-THE-BOX!

   to (A)  CALCULATORS ...
   to (B)  SLIDE RULES ...
   to (C)  TYPEWRITERS ...
   to (D)  TELEPHONES  ...
   to (E)  MULTIMETERS ...
   to (F)  CLOCKS      ...

******************************************************************
   Werde Mitglied  /  Become Member of the  I.F.H.B.  ...
           INTERNATIONALES FORUM HISTORISCHE BUEROWELT e.V.

( A )  CALCULATORS ...
**********************

1st FAQ:              " What is my Calculator worth ?"
------------------------------------------------------
More often I get this question from around the world.
Here my usual answer - and SORRY - I will NOT ANSWER
anymore EMAILS dealing with this topic.

There are 3 main-points to consider:
   (1)  Is the machine working ?
   (2)  Are parts missing ?
   (3)  The overall look ? Rust ? Dents ?

In general there is no common answer possible. The
"fair price" is, what a collector is willing to pay
and what the seller is accepting.

Only the "look & feel" of the collector give the
decision "Is it worth the money?" and / or "Is it
possible to repair?". After bad experiences in EBAY,
I buy only what I can "see & feel". Flea Markets,
Thrift Shops or Antique Malls are good for this!
Often there is a big discrepancy of sellers ideas
for the price and the reality of the market - but
if you are patient enough and can wait, you will
see the price dropping. Otherwise you may be lucky
to get an unexpected "treasure" for "nearly nothing".
This is the fun in the real world - not to compare
with the "VIRTUAL REALITY of EBAY".


2nd FAQ:       " What can I do to fix my Calculator ?"
------------------------------------------------------
In most cases it is impossible to give advices via
email without seeing the candidate. But I summarize
here some TYPICAL PROBLEMS / SOLUTIONS I was asked:

1st IMPORTANT ADVICE:
---------------------
Before you apply (eg.) WD-40 to the gearings, clean the
inner of the machine as good as possible with tweezers,
brush, vaccuum cleaner, ...  Make sure that you not lost
any tiny parts like springs, ...

WD-40 is good to open locked gears - BUT! Over months it
becomes sticky and the gears are locked again. To avoid
this problem, use a SILICONE(-Spray) after successful
application to remove the residuals left by the WD-40.

2nd IMPORTANT ADVICES:
----------------------
Be aware, that all takes longer than expected. Find a
working area where nobody disturbes your stuff over days.
See as an example:
  MONROE / Model-1 / OlderVersion ...

Organize your working area! Have little bowls for screws
and springs. Use paper and pen to make lots of notices and
sketches. Take digital photos to document the procedure in
sequence. Be brave but careful: Everybody has started once.

MOTORIZED CALCULATORS are special problems: If it works
it happens so quick, that you can not see what goes wrong.
It is necessary to RUN IT MANUALLY. To give you an idea
"How to do" see as examples:
  ASTRA,
  BURROUGHS_Class-9,
  CONTEX-55,
  HAMANN-AUTOMAT-S (1st+2nd Vers.),
  MERCEDES-EUKLID-22,
  VICTOR US/GB NonMetric
  ...

BUT !!! Sometimes it doesn't work right manually !!!
The designer had taken into account gravity & mass-moment.
Or vice versa - It works manually but not motorized:
It may be a "timing problem" (because sticky oil ?)
These are the most frustrating moments of restoration
if it happens deep inside out of sight & easy access!

"My Adding Machine print crazy results - ???"
---------------------------------------------
Make sure, you have cleared the internal memory by
pressing  TOTAL = [T] Key  ( or the aquivalent one )
before you start a test-calculation
  ...

"Some Input-Levers of my BRUNSVIGA-13RM are blocked"
----------------------------------------------------
IF YOU ARE LUCKY:
In contrary to "Expert Advice" I had success with
application of WD-40 first and Silicon Spray second.
I F   I T   F A I L S :
You have to disassemble the Pin-Wheel-Cylinder to
find out why. It could be "ZINC-PEST", a "Disease"
what let the metal expand under special circumstances.
As an example see:
  FELIKS
  ...

MONROE / Split-Stepped Drum Type:
---------------------------------
If wrong numbers are transfered into the arithmetic
unit, probably the "Half-Tooth-Wheels" of the MONROE-
CODING are not moving right. Look under DIAGRAMS in
the SPLIT-STEPPED DRUM to understand the principle;
use WD-40 to free the gears, later apply Silicon Spray
  ...

10-Block Adding Machine:
------------------------
If wrong numbers are transfered into the arithmetic
unit, probably the MATRIX is defect.  Look under
VICTOR / TALLYMASTER to get an idea for fixing
  ...

New RIBBONS for VICTOR Adding Machines:
---------------------------------------
( eg. Black, 8mm x 13m HD-Nylon for CITIZEN »120D«; »GSX140« )

There are cartridges for MATRIX-Printers on the market with 8 mm
NYLON-Ribbons. Check the cartridge before buying because there are
several available with different lengths.  In some cases you can
get 3 spools out of one cartridge!  You will get your fingers
dirty when you do the respooling - but the result is great!
And remember:  BOTH SIDES HAVE TO BE SPOOLED CLOCKWISE ...
  ...

Missing KEY:
------------
Make your own! As examples see;
  The [+] KEY in MERCEDES-EUKLID-22,
  or the (NON-ADD) KEY in BURROUGHS CLASS 3,
  or the (REPEAT) KEY in BURROUGHS CLASS 1,
  OR
  the DECIMAL POSITION MARKERs / RESET KEYs:
  CONTEX-20  or  REMINGTON,
  OR
  the BLUE & RED BUTTONS on top of the CONTEX-55,
  ...

Missing DECIMAL MARKERS:
------------------------
Make your own! As examples see
  BRUNSVIGA-10,
  MERCEDES-EUKLID-38MS,
  PRODUX-MULTATOR,
  THALES-MEZ,
  THALES-CER,
  ...

Missing LEVER CAPS:
-------------------
Use colored insulator pipes! As examples see
  HAMANN-MANUS,
  MELITTA,
  PRODUX-MULTATOR,
or make your own - e.g. the DELETE CAPS in
  TRIUMPHATOR CN2,
  ...

Missing HANDLE of the Main-Crank:
---------------------------------
You have to take care of the "Pull-Out Mechanic" too!
As examples see
  MARCHANT-STANDARD,
  ...

Missing Paper TEAR-OFF BLADE:
-----------------------------
Use a piece of a pocket saw! As example see
  MONROE 811-H14 (=Olympia),
  ...

RUBBER of the PRINT-CYLINDER destroyed:
---------------------------------------
Slip a piece of an old bicycle tube over! As example see
  VICTOR / McCASKEY CashRegister,
  SUMMIRA-7 with PRINTER,
  ...

RUBBER FEET are detoriated:
---------------------------
Use tub stoppers! To get suggestions see
  BRUNSVIGA-13RM,
  FACIT CA1-13,
  NUMERIA 8213,
  ORIGINAL-ODHNER,
  SCHUBERT-DRV,
  ...
or leather patches? See
  THALES-KA,
  ...
or be inventive ...
  THALES-CER,
  ...

Special POWER CABLES:
---------------------
To get examples how to re-use the old plug:
  MONROE / Model-1 / OlderVersion,
  PRECISA 208-10,
  VICTOR / Full-KBD / E-Model / ArtDeco,
  ...

When the original cable is missing ??? BE INVENTIVE !!!
Make your own from scratch ...

  UNDERWOOD 300R (= OLIVETTI),

OR ...

Example for the  MONROE / Model-1 / NewerVersion
used in Germany ...



... A N D   B E   C L E V E R :  When the 110 V motor is for AC/DC,
than you can use a POWER-DIODE in sequence ( e.g. BYT-56M )
to run the calculator on 220 VAC OUTLETS in Europe !!!

FEMALE ANGLE PLUGS ??? ( to put calculator against the wall )
-------------------------------------------------------------
When not available,  make your own !!!  Examples:

Using a damaged plug for the  FACIT EK  ( w.POWER-DIODE ) ...
   or another ...
 
... for CELLATRON-R31 or WALTHER DIWA-32 ...

Or another for the  HAMANN AUTOMAT-S ...


... See the difference in size:



What if you want a MALE ANGLE PLUG too ???
------------------------------------------
May be you have to make your own !!! Example ...

 

... In a modified film-box, sealed with 2-component-glue

Crumbled POWER PLUG:
--------------------
Install a modern one! As example see
  VICTOR-AUTOMATIC,
  ...

Missing SERVICE-KEY for BURROUGHS Calculators:
----------------------------------------------
Look under BURROUGHS how to make one
  ...

BELL is lost:
-------------
The bell in the calculator indicates an "Overflow" or "Underflow"
of the Arithmetic Unit.  It is special useful in the  DIVISION-
PROCEDURE: It is not necessary to count or observe the sequence
of subtractions! As soon as the bell chimes, an ADD-TURN has to
be done and the carriage has to be SHIFTED ONE STEP to the left.
Start the next sequence of subtractions... until the bell chimes!

If the bell is lost, make your own!  See some examples ...
  LIPSIA-11R,
  THALES-MEZ,
  ...
The Bell in the Bookkeeping BURROUGHS is a "Paper-End"-BELL:
  BURROUGHS CLASS 1,
  ...

BROKEN LEVERS:
--------------
Be inventive! See some examples ...
  RESULTA-7P,
  VICTOR-AUTOMATIC-73,
  ...

BROKEN COVER:
-------------
Use 2-Component-Glue and some stabilizing material, e.g.:
  HAMANN-500,
  THALES-KA,
  TRIUMPHATOR CN2,
  TRIUMPHATOR CRN2,
  VICTOR US/GB NonMetric,
  ...

When the cover is rusty: RE-PAINTING !!! BUT ...
------------------------------------------------
   ... "How to restore NUMBERS & INSCRIPTIONS ?"

Up to now the only calculator I have re-paint was the
  FELIKS-M

1st you have to remove the rust. Cover all other parts & area!
Apply a "Primer"-Spray - Than apply the Color-Spray you want.

You have to spray over the numbers & inscriptions with paint.
To restore numbers & inscriptions there are OIL-PAINT-MARKERS
available in Art-Shops: You have to shake it well - you hear a
weight moving inside. With patients you re-write the numbers ...


Other Examples of  " T Y P I C A L "  WORN-OUT ERRORS:
------------------------------------------------------
A BRUNSVIGA-10 could NOT RESET TO ZERO properly, because the
worn-out mechanics.  To prevent that the RESET COMB in the
axle of the ARITHMETIC snaps in his PARK POSITION GAP just
before all figures are reset to zero, a TIP OF A WIRE
(glued-in on top of the right side) guards the worn-out
edge of the park position gap:
  BRUNSVIGA-10

In a CONTEX-10 the Matrix tend to stuck on the right side and
had to get a left-push on the little red slider to be freed
for working. My SOLUTION: Out of sheet metal (from a fish can)
a SPRING was cut, folded and fixed in the right position by a
KEY-RING.  At the end of each machine cycle the matrix was
pushed right - but bounced back on the spring into the right
position - ready for the next operation
  CONTEX-10
  ...

Other Examples of difficult but successful Restorations ...
-----------------------------------------------------------
  HAMANN-AUTOMAT S,
  MERCEDES EUKLID 22,
  MERCEDES EUKLID 29,
  MERCEDES EUKLID 38MS,
  MILLIONAIRE,
  MONROE 1 (OLD),
  ODHNER-239,
  PRECISE,
  VICTOR TALLYMASTER,
  ...

"What to do, when the Motor-Axle is not accessable ???"
-------------------------------------------------------
I made a TOOL to drive the centrifugal speed-control of the
MONROE-CAA's MOTOR with  A BELT, MADE OF SAND PAPER ...

  A TOOL TO TEST THE MONROE CAA-10 MANUALLY

"How you have measured your CALCULATOR DIMENSIONS ..."
------------------------------------------------------
I put an imaginary box around the displayed machine.
The ERRORS may be about  5 mm  or  1/8".

Taking the WEIGHT was sometimes a problem too:  The
machine was too heavy for the kitchen scale - but too
light for reliable reading on the person scale ...

"... and what about YEARS ?"
----------------------------
Different sources show different numbers.
Take the given year as a REASONABLE GUESS.

"Why COFFEE MUGS or BEER STEINS with some Machines ?"
-----------------------------------------------------
My 1st picture with a mug was the MONROE Model-1,
because the electrical cord was so unwilling to stay
in place for the shot. It was my 1st E-Machine. After
that, I made a joke out of for ALL MOTORIZED MACHINES.

"What about TEST-PATTERNS for Calculators ?"
--------------------------------------------
There are "Professionals" known ...

 o  "Without 8" as Multiplication Pattern:

              12345679 *  9  =  111111111

 o  "Special Multiplication" ...

              41152263 *  3  =  123456789

 o  "Repeat Addition" (special for motorized calculators):

        370370 ... 037 *  3  =  111111 ... 111
                       *  6  =  222222 ... 222
                            ...
                       * 27  =  999999 ... 999

                   ... and for additional Tests ...
Andreas Graebe/TFH has produced useful patterns for
"EasyProof" & "MinimalCrankTurns" ( 10 .. 15 Digits )

  (10)      977768 * 9091    =  8888888888
  (11)      513239 * 129894  =  66666666666
  (12)    56111055 * 9901    =  555555555555
  (13)   265371653 * 29309   =  7777777777777
  (14)    36666663 * 909091  =  33333333333333
  (15)  4408646237 * 100812  =  444444444444444

My "EasyInput" patterns for  11 .. 14 Digits  are:

  (11)     1234567 *  54321  =  67062914007
  (12)     1234567 * 654321  =  807803114007
  (13)    12345678 * 654321  =  8078036374638
  (14)   123456789 * 654321  =  80780369635269

"Without 8" as Division Pattern:

               37037037 / 3  =  12345679

My favorit Division Pattern is:

		     22 / 7  =  3.142857|142857|...

Cliff's favorit Division Pattern is:

		  355 / 113  =  3.141592920  ( R = 40 )

 ( The real value of  "PI"  is  3.141592654... )

Special: TEST for COMPTOMETER & VICTOR-Type PRINTER:

          11,111.11
       +  22,222.22
       +  33,333.33
       +  44,444.44
       +  55,555.55
       +  66,666.66
       +  77,777.77
       +  88,888.88
       +  99,999.99
      --------------
       = 499,999.95


( B )  S L I D E   R U L E S :
******************************

CURSOR of a historic Slide Rule is missing:
-------------------------------------------
Make your own!  How?
  (0)  May be STIFF PLASTIC is good enough ???
           Otherwise:
  (1)  You need a TEMPLATE for benting -
          Take into account the hight of the "glass"
          ( "How-To-Make-The-Glass?" see next paragraph! )
          and space for the spring
       Make a block in the right size out of aluminum or pertinax 
  (2)  Make a METAL SHEET in the right width but DOUBLE LENGTH
          ( You need more material for benting force! )
  (3)  Bent it around
          ( with the aid of a vice and using a distance piece )
  (5)  Now reduce the oversized "slider-ends" for fitting
  (6a) If the "tracks" are precise, you need no spring
          ( e.g. FABER-CASTELL, NESTLER, see there )      
  (6b) When necessary, make a SPRING out of a strip of bronce,
          bent it around an cut the ends
          ( e.g. LOGAREX, see there )
  (4) Mark the WINDOW, drill a hole and fretsaw it out
  (5) Smooth edges, corners and surface with file and sandpaper
  (6) After making the "GLASS", glue it, adjust it over the scales
          ( use only points of component glue in the 4 corners ) 

Examples you can see under ...
( "MouseOver" their cursors -
          allow "PopUp-Windows" for this HomePage! )
  ARISTO ( Pocket / Mahogany ),
  FABER-CASTELL COLUMBUS 342,
  FABER-CASTELL DISPONENT 1/22A,
  LOGAREX 4542-27403,
  NESTLER-KAUFMANN 40,
  ...

OR: Home-made CURSOR for a  REISS-DARMSTADT  Vers.(B2)-Style:

  

A snapshot of the making procedure ...

   ... see GLASS ...

SIMPLER for Pocket SlideRules ...
  FABER-CASTELL MINI-POCKET 74/91,
  LOGAREX-POCKET,
  ...

The EDGES of a PLASTIC-CURSOR are broken:
-----------------------------------------
see ...
  MANTISSA »MONO-RIETZ« VERSION (A),

The CURSOR of a CONCISE CIRCULAR is broken:
-------------------------------------------
Use stiff clear PVC and cut out the shape & drill the holes.
REFER to the next paragraph how to make the HAIRLINE.
Than bent the PVC over a sharp edge.
Examples ...
  »CONCISE-260«,
  ...

The CURSOR of a PROPORTIONAL SCALE is missing:
----------------------------------------------
Make your own out of a Paper Clip!

  NORMA »GRAFIA«,
  ...

The GLASS of the CURSOR is broken or missing:
---------------------------------------------
Make your own out of PVC from CD Cases!
Use a sharp X-ACTO to scratch the hairlines;
use permanent marker to color it - whipe the rest away
with cardboard-strips sucked-in with a drop of alcohol.
Examples you can see under ...
( "MouseOver" their cursors -
          allow "PopUp-Windows" for this HomePage! )
  ARISTO ELEKTRO 914,
  BRUNING MANNHEIM 2420,
  DIETZGEN MANIPHASE MULTIPLEX 1732,
  FOWLER VEST-POCKET CALCULATOR,
  KEUFFEL+ESSER 4097_D Pocket,
  MANTISSA-RECORD 1731421,
  NESTLER-DARMSTADT 0210,
  NESTLER-PRAEZISION 27,
  NESTLER-ELECTRO 37,
  SIC 120,
  ...

"CELLULOID DISEASE" of CURSOR-BLOCKS:
-------------------------------------
Celluloid, 1st produced in 1872, was the first used plastic world
wide.   It consists of a mix of cellulose nitrate & camphor.  The
plasticizer camphor is given off over time and the nitrate breaks
up under the influence of  oxygen  & moisture  and  transforms to
nitric acid.  Both effects destroy the material - and the acid is
the reason why the metal of frame and spring get brittle & rusty.

Examples to make your own Blocks see under ...
  DIETZGEN 1732,
  K&E 4081-5,
  K&E N4102,
  K&E 4083,
  ...

How to GLUE the CARDBOARD CASE:
-------------------------------
Often the cardboard case has open sides or ends. (1st) Remove
"fuzzy" parts. (2nd) Paint the white cardboard edges (eg.) black
with marker. (3rd) Use clear(!) GLUE (eg. ELMER or PONAL) and fix
it in its shape. Example of a damaged & repaired flap ...

  

Or make your own part! Example ...

  F.-C. ELEKTRO 378,
  ...

How to RE-SEW the LEATHER CASE:
-------------------------------
With  scissors & tweezers,  remove the old threads.  Use a heavy
duty thread about 4-times longer. NEEDLES on  B O T H   E N D S.
Start with equal long halfs.  Go through the EXISTING HOLES from
both sides ( mutual right/left ). Tighten after every twin-loop.
At the end go back 3-times and cut close.

  ARISTO-POCKET 812 SIMPLEX,
  ...


( C )  T Y P E W R I T E R S :
******************************

A  CORONA-3  FOLDABLE TYPEWRITER had to be restored:
Have a look & smile at my solution(s)
   ...

BELL is missing:
----------------
Make your own!  See some examples ...
  ADLER,
  ...

BROKEN LEVERS:
--------------
Be inventive! See some examples ...
  GROMINA,
  HAMMOND,
  RHEINMETALL,
  ...

BROKEN COVER:
-------------
Use 2-Component-Glue and some stabilizing material, e.g.:
  TRIUMPH,
  ...

RECYCLED RIBBONS:
-----------------
I used a »MAC-INKER« from the 70's to Re-Ink MATRIX-PRINTER-CASSETTES -
With CUT & SPOOL I got REPLACEMENT-RIBBONS ...

  


( D )  T E L E P H O N E S :
****************************

"We have only INTERNET / »Voice-Over-IP« connection at home ...
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Our vintage telephones with pulse-dialing don't work - What to do ???"

There are "PULSE-TO-TONE-CONVERTER" on the market for this task.
I found the "DIALGIZMO" (~ 50 US$ ) useful - There is a way to sent
also the key-commands /*/ & /#/ for automatic menue-guided systems ...

     http://www.DIALGIZMO.COM

"I got a TOUCH TONE TELEPHONE - IT WORKS - BUT NOT ITS KEYBOARD ?"
------------------------------------------------------------------
The older keyboards are sensitive to the polarity of the incomming
wires.  Exchange the wires (RED, GREEN) either in the outlet or in
the telephone; or use a "crossed" cable between telephone & outlet.
As an example see:  BELL/WE-2500.

A TEST-TELEPHON can show how the outlet's polarity "should be".

"The BELL of an historic TELEPHONE is not working ???"
------------------------------------------------------
May be there is nothing defect with; may be it is RE-WIRED(?) to be
silent in the sleeping room ?   Two telephones came in this way:
     DIAL-PRINCESS    &    DIAL-CONTESSA
In both telephones the BLACK WIRE of the BELL was connected to
SCREW (G). After RE-WIRING TO SCREW (LI) the BELL WORKED AGAIN !!!

"How to RESTORE THE DIAL-CENTER of an historic USA TELEPHONE ?"
---------------------------------------------------------------
As examples see:
  MONOPHONE (1967)
  ...

"How to REPAIR THE COIL-CORD CONNECTIONS of an historic TELEPHONE ?"
--------------------------------------------------------------------
As examples see:
  MONOPHONE (1937)
  ITT-OWN-A-PHONE / PETITE (1970)
  KELLOGG (1949)
   ...

"How to MAKE AN EXTERNAL TRANSFORMER for the »PRINCESS« TELEPHONE ?"
-------------------------------------------------------------------
As an example see:  PRINCESS TRANSFORMER
   ...

Do not change the original Cable-Ends ...
-----------------------------------------
Open the original, old-fashioned plug, unscrew the cable, and e.g.
replace it with a MALE- or FEMAL-WESTERN (= Wall Outlet) plug ...

  


( E )  MULTIMETERS ...
**********************

"Where I get the SMALL 1.5 Volt BATTERY for my S & H Instrument ?"
------------------------------------------------------------------
Take a HALF 3 Volt "FlashLight" Battery, eg. #3010 or #2R10 ...

  

See ...

  LAB DC μA METER
  LAB V/A-METER
  OHM-METER
   ...

"How to restore a BROKEN BAKALITE HOUSING ?"
--------------------------------------------
See some examples ...
  LAB DC μA METER
  ...

"How to make SHUNTS to use sensitive A-Meters for higher Currents ?"
--------------------------------------------------------------------
When you want to expand (eg.) the  10 mA-Range to 100 mA-Range, than
let a 10 mA current go through the instrument:  It shows FULL SCALE.
Now connect  an  EXPERIMENTAL  RESISTOR (= "SHUNT")  parallel to the
instrument until it shows a  10-times reduced  current = 1 mA.  This
is the  value of the searched SHUNT! "Fine tuning" recommended if an
other Lab-A-Meter with right ranges is available.  See examples ...
  LABOR   LOW-LEVEL   AMPERE-METER
  PORTABLE  DC / AC  VOLT / AMPERE  METER
  ...

"What to do, when THE NEEDLE IS NOT FREE MOVING ?"
--------------------------------------------------
See some examples ...
  LAB DC AMPERE METER
  ...

"AC is not working right - How to repair the historic RECTIFIER ?"
------------------------------------------------------------------
See some examples ...
  PORTABLE  DC / AC  VOLT / AMPERE  METER
  MULTIMETER »EXACTA«
  ...

"What to do, when the original BATTERY is not longer available ?"
-----------------------------------------------------------------
See for example ...
  ITT-METRIX FIELD MULTIMETER MX-202
  ...


( F )  CLOCKS ...
*****************

"The PENDULUM of GrandMa's Clock is missing - What do do ?"
-----------------------------------------------------------
See some examples ...
  SESSIONS Mantel Clock Restoration
  ...

"The FACE of GrandMa's Clock is faded/detoriated - What do do ?"
----------------------------------------------------------------
Get rid of it! Show the beauty of the inner clockwork!
See some examples ...
  GrandMa's Baroque Mantel Clock
  ...

"How to repair electro-mechanical clocks ?"
-------------------------------------------
See some examples ...
  QUELLE WORLD CLOCK
  KUNDO WORLD CLOCK
  ...

"HOW TO REDUCE THE NOISE OF A SYNCHRON CLOCK ?"
------------------------------------------------
See some examples ...
  ArtDeco Electro-Mechanical 12H DIGITAL CLOCK
  ArtDeco Electro-Mechanical 24H DIGITAL CLOCK
  ...

impressum:
********************************************************************
© C.HAMANN     http://public.beuth-hochschule.de/~hamann    05/06/17